In this section a number of Reference Books and Journal Articles concerning physical and forensic anthropology have been included. This section will be continuously updated.



  • General

Brothwell DR. Digging Up Bones. Cornell University Press, 1981, 208 p.

Buikstra JE, Ubelaker DH. Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains. Arkansas Archeological Survey, Spi, 1994, 218 p.

Ortner DJ. Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains, Academic Press, 2003, 645 p.

Matshes EW. Human Osteology and Skeletal Radiology: An Atlas and Guide. CRC Press, 2004, 448p.

Baker BJ, Dupras TL, Tocheri MW. Osteology of Infants and Children. Texas A&M University Press, 2005, 188 p.

White TD, Folkens PA. The Human Bone Manual, Academic Press, 2005, 488 p.

Adams BJ, Byrd JE. Recovery, Analysis, and Identification of Commingled Human Remains. Humana Press, 2008, 374 p.

Hillson S. Dental Anthropology. Cambridge University Press, 2008, 392 p.

Scheuer L, Black S, Schaefer MC. Juvenile Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual. Academic Press, 2008, 384 p.

France DL. Human and Nonhuman Bone Identification: A Color Atlas. CRC Press, 2009, 584 p.

Marquez-Grant N, Fibiger L. The Routledge Handbook of Archaeological Human Remains and Legislation: An international guide to laws and practice in the excavation and treatment of archaeological human remains. Routledge, 2011, 26 p.

Mann RW, Hunt DR. Photographic Regional Atlas of Bone Disease: A Guide to Pathologic and Normal Variations in the Human Skeleton. Charles C Thomas Pub Ltd, 2012, 416 p.

Schmidt C, Symes S. The Analysis of Burned Human Remains. Academic Press, 2015, 488 p.


  • Forensic anthropology

Iscan YM, Helmer RP. Forensic Analysis of the Skull: Craniofacial Analysis, Reconstruction, and Identification. Wiley-Liss, 1993, 258 p.

Schmitt A, Cunha E, Pinheiro J. Forensic Anthropology and Medicine: Complementary Sciences From Recovery to Cause of Death. Humana Press, 2006, 480 p.

Thompson T, Black S. Forensic Human Identification: An Introduction. CRC Press, 2006, 544 p.

Cameriere R. AgEstimation project: Cameriere´s method for age estimation. Eum X Medicina Legale, 2008, 127 p.

Dupras TL, Schultz JJ, Wheeler SM, Williams LJ. Forensic Recovery of Human Remains: Archaeological Approaches, Second Edition. CRC Press, 2011, 398 p.

Dirkmaat D. Companion to Forensic Anthropology. Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 752 p.

Langley NR., Tersigni-Tarrant MTA. Forensic Anthropology: An Introduction. CRC Press, 2012, 486p.

Passalacqua NV, Rainwater CW. Skeletal Trauma Analysis: Case Studies in Context. Wiley-Blackwell, 2015, 304 p.

Quatrehomme G. Traité d’anthropologie médico-légale. De Boeck, 2015, 1861 p.




  • General

Scheuer L. Application of Osteology to Forensic Medicine, Clinical Anatomy, 2002;15:297–312

Kennedy D. Forensic Science: Oxymoron? Science, 2003;302(5651):1625, DOI:10.1126/ science.302.5651.1625

Cattaneo C. Forensic anthropology: developments of a classical discipline in the new millennium, Forensic Science International, 2007;165:185–193

Kranioti EF, Paine RR. Forensic Anthropology in Europe:  an assessment of current status and application, Journal of Anthropological Sciences, 2011;89: 71-92

Ferreira MT, Vicente R, Navega D, Goncalves D, Curate F, Cunha E. A new forensic collection housed at the University of Coimbra, Portugal: The 21st century identified skeletal collection, Forensic Science International, 2014;245: 202.e1–202.e5


  • Biological profile

1. Sex estimation

Murail P, Bruzek J, Houët F, Cunha E. DSP: A tool for probabilistic sex diagnosis using worldwide variability in hip-bone measurements, Bulletins et mémoires de la Société d’Anthropologie de Paris, 2005;17 (3-4)


2. Age estimation of the dead and the living

Brooks S, Suchey J. Skeletal age determination base on the Os Pubis:  A Comparison of the Acsádi-Nemeskéri and Suchey-Brooks Methods. Human Evolution, 1990;5:227-238

Albert AM, Maples WR. Stages of epiphyseal union for thoracic lumbal vertebral centra as a method of age determination for teenage and young adult skeletons. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 1995;40(4): 6223-633.

Coqueugniot H, Weaver T. Infracranial maturation in the skeletal collection from Coimbra, Portugal: new aging standarts for epiphyseal union. American Journal of Physical, 2007; 134(3): 424-437

Schmeling A, Geserick G, Reisinger W, Olze A. Age estimation, Forensic Science International, 2007;165 (2–3): 178–181

Cunha E, Baccino E, Martrille L, Ramsthaler F, Prieto J, Schuliar Y, Lynnerup N, Cattaneo C. The problem of aging human remains and living individuals: A review, Forensic Science International, 2009;193 (1–3): 1–13

DiGangi WA, Bethard JD, Kimmerle EH, Konigsberg LW. A New Method for Estimation Age-At-Death From First Rib, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2009;138:164-176.

Rougé-Maillart C, Vielle B, Jousset N, Chappard D, Telmon N, Cunha E. Development of a method to estimate skeletal age at death in adults using the acetabulum and the auricular surface on a Portuguese population. Forensic Science International 2009;188(1-3):91-95.

Baccino E, Cunha E, Cattaneo C. Aging the Dead and the Living, Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition, 2013http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-382165-2.00009-X


3. Stature estimation


4. Ancestry estimation

Navega D, Coelho C, Vicente R, Ferreira MT, Wasterlain S, Cunha E. AncesTrees: ancestry estimation with randomized decision trees. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 2015;129(5):1145–1153


  • Trauma and pathology

Cunha E, Pinheiro J. Bone Pathology and Antemortem Trauma. In: Siegel JA, and Saukko PJ (eds.) Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition, vol. 1, pp. 76-82. Waltham: Academic Press. 2013http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-382165-2.00014-3


  • Post Mortem Interval

Ubelaker DH, Buchholz BA, Stewart J. Evaluation of Date of Death Through Analysis of Artificial Radiocarbon in Distinct Human Skeletal and Dental Tissues. Proceedings of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, XII, 2006;316



The FASE provides the links and titles of publications for informative purposes only, and does not attest to the contents of the publications and websites. FASE does not receive any funding to disseminate this information. These links and publication titles represent only a selection of the wealth of information on the topics, which will hopefully aid an initial search for references on forensic anthropology for FASE members and others. Further titles and other useful information will be added continuously.   



FORDISC 3.1 is an interactive computer program that runs under Windows for classifying adults by ancestry and sex using different combinations of standard measurements: https://fac.utk.edu/fordisc-3-1-personal-computer-forensic-discriminant-functions/


3D-ID is a Java program providing geometric morphometric tools to aid in the assessment of the sex and ancestral affiliation of unknown cranial remains: http://www.3d-id.org/


Osteoware is an easy to learn software program designed to assist in the documentation of human skeletal remains. It provides for a real-time data entry of quantitative and qualitative observations into a structured query language (SQL) relational database : https://osteoware.si.edu/


Osteomics presents a number of user-friendly software tools to help visualize and analyze anthropological data included in the biological profile: http://osteomics.com/



Forensicosteology.org is dedicated to free dissemination of forensic osteology data to academic, humanitarian, and law enforcement communities worldwide. The principal content of forensicosteology.org is the FOROST metabase. This free-access visual metabase of skeletal lesions links users to collections of many institutions from several countries around the world: http://forensicosteology.org/


ISI Journal Title Abbreviations: http://www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/~mark/ISIabbr/F_abrvjt.html


Database of skeletal collections: http://highfantastical.com/skeletal-collections/


For people who want to create 3D models themselves, Autodesk 123D is free software integrated with content and fabrication services : http://www.123dapp.com/


BoneID is a visual guide for forensic anthropologists, law enforcement, naturalists, and the simply curious.  This site’s extensive and easy-to-use database will help you identify bones from many common species regardless of your academic training: http://www.boneid.net/browse/