Theoretical Examination


The theoretical (written) examination takes place online and is in the form of a multichoice choice type of exam.

This examination can be completed from any part of the world, but a stable internet connection is required and always with a limited time to accomplished it in  one hour).

Questions are aimed at being of a more general nature, and not continent-specific, as practitioners from all regions of the world are encouraged to complete the certification process.

The following topics are included:

  • History of forensic anthropology
  • Human osteology including juvenile osteology
  • Human vs. non-human bone. General bone characteristics, including histology
  • Taphonomy
  • Search and Recovery (including documentation)
  • PMI estimation methods
  • Biological profile: Age-at-death: subadults and adults
  • Biological profile: Biological sex
  • Biological profile: Ancestry
  • Biological profile: Stature
  • Personal identification, morphological traits, occupational markers, radiology
  • Pathology: diseases, ante-mortem trauma
  • Trauma (ante-, peri-, post-mortem differentiation); types of trauma (blunt, sharp, gunshot)
  • Nomenclature, report writing, statements, interpretation and conclusions, likelihoods

At the present time, the certification covers the expertise concerning only remains of the deceased, not the assessment of the living.

Individual aspects of the examination are considered as passed when a candidate achieves a result of 80% or more. The exams will be corrected anonymously by the attending members of the certification committee. The results for the written part of the examination will be provided immediately after the exam.

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